In this article, as the title states will be primarily based on information about Female Genital Mutilation. In deep evidence of analysis the discussion of definition, types, performance, short term and long term implication, consequences in all aspects, reasons, and the law; will be included.

Female Genital Mutilation also known/referred to as FGM, is comprises of all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia. There are four (4) types of FGM acknowledged, such as Type I: Clitoridectomy, Type II: Excision, Type III: Infibulation and Type IV.

Firstly, Type I: Clitoridectomy consist of partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or its prepuce. Whilst, Type II: Excision is the clitoris and labia minora are partially or totally removed, with or without excision of the labia majora. Thirdly, Type III: Infibulation is the procedure that consists of narrowing the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and a positioning the labia minora and/or labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris. And lastly, Type IV consists of all other procedures to the genitalia of women for non-medical purpose, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.

FGM is performed in numerous of ways, in which the procedure is completed. Therefore, traditional circumcisers or cutters – with or without medical training, are. Anaesthetics and antiseptics are not generally used, however the usage of knives, scissors, scalpels, piece of glass or razed blades are implemented. Another aspect of the procedure is in Type III: Infibulation, where females’ legs are bound together until the wound is healed; to which are held together with thorns.

FGM does seem to be an extremely serious unadvised procedure to undertake, moreover the fact of the short and long implications faced. To begin with short term implications, consequences faced after the FGM procedures are: Haemorrhage, Severe pain and shock, Urine retention, Injury to adjacent tissues, Fracture/Dislocation & Death due to severe bleeding/shock/septicaemia.

Next, for the long-term implications, as the word “long” implicates it’s of extended consequences faced. Including: Difficulty in passing urine/UTI/kidney damage, Painful and difficult periods, Sexual dysfunction/infertility, Acute/chronic pelvic infection which can lead to infertility & Cyst/scar formation.

In further discussion, FGM makes it difficult and painful to have sex. This can also result in reduction of sexual desires and a lack of pleasurable sensation. In addition, some women with FGM may find it difficult to become pregnant; and those who manage to conceive can have problems in the actions of child’s birth.

Moreover FGM doesn’t only severely damage a females sexual experiences but it also heavily affects their mental health. The FGM practice can be an extremely traumatic experience that can be the cause of emotional difficulties. For instance: the level of depression and anxiety will rapidly increase, flashbacks to the times of the cutting – resulting in PTSD, nightly nightmares will often occur as well as other sleeping problems (traumas), development of relationships and trust issues and the feeling of betrayal by the family’s (parents mainly) decisions which lead to anger and regret.

With all this information about FGM, one may wonder why people currently still choose to practise this. Well through research brings my evidence as to which FGM practice continues presently. Traditionally it is custom for it brings status and respect to girls, for it’s said to preserve their virginity. As well as it fulfils religious requirements and is a form of preparation for marriage.

“FGM is a system where every female should undertake, due to the fact that it’s part of being a woman…” – stated by many communities that perform FGM. These communities are found in many parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Countries such as: Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Mali, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan & Yemen.

In the UK, FGM is illegal – however girls who were born in the UK or are residents but whose families originate from a FGM-practicing community (listed above) are at greater risk of FGM happening to them.

Furthermore, in hand of FGM being an illegal action in the UK, if anyone performs it can and will face up to fourteen (14) years in prison. As well as, if anyone is found guilty of failing to protect a girl from FGM can face seven (7) years in prison.

- This happens to be the law, based on FGM, due to the fact of historical movements against its reasons and practices. Such movements include: Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985 – penalty five (5) years imprisonment, Female Gentile Mutilation Act 2003 & Serious Crime Act 2016: Provides lifelong anonymity for victims, FGM protection order & Mandatory reporting to police for under eighteen (18) years olds.