Female genital mutilation is when a female gets parts of her vagina cut of which immediately takes away the pleasure which a female has whilst having sex. This is a common practice worldwide in may cultures. The long term effects of FGM is that emptying your bladder and having periods is a huge struggle as the vagina has been stitched up to contain the virginity of a woman however it makes a lot of things harder for example having periods is already energy consuming and very very painful. One theory of why  cultures do this is to stop having many children which allows the family to provide stable income to feed less mouths and be healthy. The type 3 stage is the example to back up this theory as the female would physically destroy her body if giving birth as the the vagina lips are supposed to stretch when giving birth and if that is physically cut of then the body will find an alternative which can cause tears and rips between the vagina and anus. Furthermore another long term effect a female can have is infections will start to develop and it can have serious effects on the female, this is why many of the victims are being starved so that they do not have to use the toilet as much making it less painful as they would not have to release their bowels.In the uk it is illegal to perform this procedure and you are protect abroad with laws that can get your parents or arrested  and passports taken away for your protection. 100000 females have been reported to have take this illegal procedure in the uk coming from a foreign Country. This is a gruesome procedure that leaves patients in severe trauma for the rest of their lives.