As students, we have all studied how volcanoes are formed in lessons. The science behind volcanoes has been clear for many years and eruptions continue to take place around the world. 


A volcano is an opening in the Earth's crust where hot liquid rock from deep within the Earth, called magma, erupts to the surface. When rock beneath the Earth's surface gets hot, it becomes molten or liquid. This may result is lava bombs or pyroclastic flows. It may also cause clouds of ash which is intoxicating to human bodies. They can be the cause of destruction and the loss of lives but also the path to creation. They provide nutrients to the surrounding soil. Volcanic ash often contains minerals that are beneficial to plants, and if it is very fine ash it can break down quickly and get mixed into the soil. The magma that leaks from the volcano onto the earth's crust can also mean that once cooled it can make new layers of soil.  


The most recent volcanic eruption to date is the eruption of the Taal volcano in the Philippines. The volcano started to erupt on January 12, 2020, and the country was issued an Alert Level 4, indicating that a hazardous explosive eruption was possible within hours to days. Scientists are monitoring the situation remotely, using ground and space instrumentation. Filipino authorities have been struggling to keep around 50,000 residents evacuated from the area from trying to return to their homes to gather possessions and to check on livestock. The volcano has had several violent eruptions in the past, causing loss of life on the island and the populated areas surrounding the lake, with the death toll estimated at about 6,000. Prior to the 2020 eruption, the crater lake on Volcano Island was the largest lake on an island in the world. There have been 33 recorded eruptions at Taal since 1572. The first eruption of which there is any record occurred in 1572. Volcano Island sank from 1 to 3 m (3 to 10 ft) as a result of the eruption. 


In my opinion, the most famous and recognized volcanic eruption is the one in Pompeii but also one of the deadliest eruptions. It was an ancient Roman city and  Mount Vesuvius was a volcano in modern-day Italy and erupted in 79 AD in one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions in European history. The remains of over 1,500 people have been found at Pompeii and Herculaneum, however, the death toll is still unclear. 


What do you think was the deadliest eruption?