Thames Valley University is to change its name to the University of West London.
The name change, which will be introduced in October, was formally agreed by the Privy Council.
The university said the change enabled it to concentrate its "operations" on its campuses in Brentford and Ealing.
The new name will be accompanied by a new logo.
Current students and applicants will not be affected, but a new Ucas code will be introduced for prospective students applying for courses in 2011.
Vice-Chancellor Professor Peter John said: “This is a natural progression for TVU which is now a very different institution to that which was granted university status in 1992.
“The name change is necessary in order to align our new direction of travel with our clear brand and geographical identity which now lies at the heart of west London focusing on our two campuses in Ealing and Brentford."
The announcement coincided with the appointment of a new chancellor, who is an alumnus of the university.
Laurence Geller, president and chief executive of Strategic Hotels and Resorts, took over the role of Chancellor-Designate this month from Lord Karan Bilimoria, who stepped down after five years.